and theoretical aspects of a psychological correctional technique "the
director - script writer"
the given article the description of a psychological method which is
suitable as well for independent psychological self-help (self-correction)
is offered. The method assumes transformation of not enough realized
emotionally painted contents. In comparison with other methods which use
work of imagination and the figurative thinking, the technique “the
director - script writer” can give more safety as will involve a
phenomenon of dissociation.
the early period of the psychoanalysis Z. Freud had been put forward an
idea that it is possible to get rid of an emotional complex, having
reacted it, “blowing steam off”, so to say. Not reacted
make a basis of neurotic complexes. This explanation corresponded with
the idea of “mental energy” or energy of libido,
of a channel of which causes development of neuroses. Excessive social
and cultural interdictions
in Z. Freud’s opinion, obstacles for free current of mental energy [7;
appeared later on, fountains of
even numerous, are not enough for making changes in the psychological
status of a person. Reconsideration of the importance of certain events
occurs through attitudes of two persons - the patient and the
therapist - in so-called experience of “transfer”. There is a
mentalities collision and comparison of experiences (including the
unique algorithms of reaction going since childhood) taking place here.
The patient partly submits to authority, partly chooses what is most
suitable to him. It is going on in the so-called associated status of
consciousness when the client realizes himself as an acting subject of
his reminiscences, real sensations and emotions are being reproduced,
and the story is being conducted grammatically from the first person.
in a role of an authoritative observer and partly a participant on whom
the client checks up “correctness” of his reaction. From here the
sense of “catharsis”, or “cathartic emotions”, will consist not
in benefit of rough display of emotions, “blowing steam off”, giving
energy as Z. Freud considered once, but namely in testing
on the therapist. It is information interchange, though not expressed
verbally. In fact the same strong emotions could torment the patient for
years without a single “catharsis”
he experienced them alone.
reaction occurs, besides in such a manner that a person is associated,
he identifies himself with his emotions, he is completely seized by them,
even subordinated. He does not supervise the emotion (by the way to say,
the control, in the sense of constant restraint, is the worst variant of
living, digress from naturalness and spontaneity also), but he floats
with its current, on a stream of roughly escaped energy of libido. It
brings temporary relief and feeling of authenticity of life,
authenticity of own displays. But it seems unreasonable to reconsider
that is authentic. Besides it is difficult to do, because the rational
control (in sense of the high-grade analysis) is reduced during the
to connect an emotional experience to an opportunity to process the
contents “with a cold head”? There is a way which lies in a
dissociated experience, that means the experience of own emotion, as
Many techniques of psychotherapy are working with visions which a
client imagines or recollects. Some techniques of the neuro-linguistic
programming (NLP) apply different modifications of dissociation.
Psychologists have also noticed that indirect suggestion is more
effective than the direct one (if it is not a trance
of suggestion). The reason is that a person can protect his personal
wealth of notions, the foundations, values and features of his character.
Direct attempts to influence will come across resistance or
misunderstanding, an open aversion even. The alternative variants of
behavior presented as life experiences of others, not imposed, but
simply existing phenomena, can “be accepted to consideration” at
least. Psychological reorganization occurs then from the desire to
imitate the best. The person adopts experience, making a free (conscious
or unconscious) choice.
in the neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)
not a “part”
of a person experiencing emotional recollections but only a part of
circumstances of reminiscences is “pushed aside” and then
transformed. For example, a picture of distressing memoirs is inserted
into a “frame” and “removed” far away or it “is made dark”,
or something else. Emotional attitude changes as a result of it .
But the person this all makes on his own, changing his perception
himself, not separating the subject of action from himself.
treatment of phobias or panic statuses if reminiscences are
intolerable for a patient, a method of “a cinema box” is offered
to him. He is sitting “boxed off” and “showing a cinema” of his
memoirs, watching himself on the “screen” from outside
. Here the subject of action and emotions is separated from the
“observer” whom the patient must be during this treatment. It
reduces acuteness of experiences. (An idea of “director’s approach”
resembling to the above is in the book of the NLP experts Joseph
O’Connor and John Seymour [2, p. 93] who advise to apply it in
designing a future behavior.
In my opinion, this method is much more universal and promising, than
the authors considered.)
there also can be complications in processing of painful complexes with
such a method. People
in different ways
not always well!), especially if they “see” their own behavior from
outside. “The observer” can turn out caustic, or indifferent,
irreconcilable, show no sympathy, empathy and desire to help oneself at
all. A patient can refuse to be dissociated in some cases because he
would not like to see himself from another point of view and to
acknowledge fair ratings of his associates. While he is such, what he is,
he has an opportunity “not to understand” how it is possible for him
to be another “with such a destiny”, “with such a life”, or
“with such associates”. Resistance (which usually another direction
of psychotherapy – the psychoanalysis - persistently struggles
against) is in full bloom.
bypass these obstacles, it is necessary to have a technique where a
patient (client) would “see” his own emotion or experience (or even
a physical sensation) from outside, and would not identify
himself completely with the subject of action. It eliminates resistance
at once. For this purpose it is necessary that the subject of
processing of an emotional complex would be a character in
a certain abstract scenario where circumstances develop,
eventually, for the benefit of the protagonist. The experience of
a differently developed destiny (or even an important sequence) is actually
the processing of a neurotic complex. The patient in the role of “the
director and a script writer” “writes” and alters the
script in appropriate way. He also maintains a continuous emotional “contact”,
empathy to the protagonist. As “the director” he keeps watching that
the hero would
and have the same sensations and emotions that the patient has in the
situation of his memoirs or experiences. That is “the hero” should
play the original feelings of the founder.
following is offered to a client:
a distressing emotion, an unpleasant experience or sensation which you
would like to work on and get rid of it. Precisely imagine, feel again
that you have chosen.
any suitable character that could have
your imagined “film”. You are not limited in a choice of an object
for the role completely:
(it) can be you or not you (at any age), a person or any living creature,
or even a conditionally alive thing (like animated things in cartoon
films, “a clot of energy”, even “a supernal force”, for example).
The only principle is that the object must pass through your sensations
and feelings. Your unconsciousness should help you to make a correct
choice. However, nobody forbids to you to change your character at any
“to discern” an environment of your hero, those circumstances in
which he is, and also other characters if they present there. The
pictures are not obliged to be clear. The minimal degree of recognition
or classification is enough.
now create such a script where the topic would develop in favor and in
interests of your hero until his (its) emotions or sensations would
change for the better, until he would achieve satisfaction and calmness
in your topic. Again you are not limited in any way in means (even in
the most fantastic). Absolutely all is allowable. The given method,
therefore, could be named
method of “personal magic”
reorganization of the internal universe.
process of a client imagination work follows further that he narrates
about. The psychologist plays a role of “an assistant to the script
writer”, prompting ideas if it is required.
is possible to call efficiency and safety as the features of the given
method. This method is suitable for independent work. Any person
having the slightest degree of imagination and the minimal abilities to
visualization, empathy and dissociation
his experience can practically master it. Safety of this method is
exactly by dissociation
is put in its basis. The person is excited
even less than while watching thrillers or melodramas on the TV, as an
active role of a script writer is in hands of the patient and
everything is dependent on him. Other methods of work with images differ
here because they are not so safe and demand obligatory participation of
a skilled psychotherapist
a script, suitable for a real film, differs very much from that
“moving pictures” which are being developed in the given technique.
There are separate patterns of reaction and separately taken feelings
and sensations exposed to processing here, though sometimes this can
display itself in a pretty
plot. The person finds out thus how a latent “kitchen” of his
mentality is arranged. (I recollected a couplet of A. Mironov’s
song: “You will make a lot of discoveries … sometimes not wishing
that at all!”)
is possible to process with the help of such a method? - Not only
emotions, but also sensations, psycho-somatic symptoms. It is possible
to facilitate a somatic disease, having separated attendant
psychological phenomena with negative sense. It is possible to weaken
strained muscles in a body or in its separate parts. Also it is possible
to carry out improvement of a body, mind and skills, including the
skills of intercourse and personal contacts.
a long practice a systematic
character of mentality is appreciable. We can see interrelations of
various structures in its contents, a hierarchy
“layers” and a coherence of principles in the construction of notion
systems. While remaking one of fragments, others, connected with it on
any principle, emerge for realization. The symptom that was worked
against never comes back in the former shape, but something caused by it
example of systematic character of mind it is possible to point at polar
symmetry (ambivalence, conversion into opposite to initial). From
under the “deleted” emotion of fear, for instance, aggression or
something similar is being “liberated” suddenly.
another manifestation of symmetrical properties of mentality
automatically shows itself often. It is a change (or a transmutation)
according to the “rule
tetragon” of actions
- sufferings: “I do (make)” - “I do not do (make)”; “I undergo”
– “I do not undergo” that and that. The given “tetragon”
as a confirmation of ambivalence of mental aspirations
that each person has.
a valuable experience for a person to reconcile contrasts, to adopt
roles, rejected by his conscious moral control and opposite to his
character and aims. As a result the person gains much more tolerance of
other people’s views. He has better regard for
who behave differently than him, who possess other social values.
it is necessary to stop more in detail
basis of the given method. Psychological methods, which use processes of
imagination, are ways to have an influence on human unconsciousness [1,
described technique “the director - script writer” is of great value
among them owing to the safety which is combined with very deep
penetration into unconscious sphere and ample opportunities for its
change and organizing.
about what subconscious mental outfit, the foundation of which is laid
at early childhood (and even before a birth), the question is? What is
its value, and what is its danger because of which its transformation
may be necessary?
adapt oneself to probabilities
the world and to master an environment in which all is far from being
predicted, it is possible only on the basis of analogies of previous
experience. They should be either selected according to the maximum
probability values and frequency of occurrence (naturally, at the
beginning a child is not so much a subject of selection acts as society
and parents are), or they should be remembered from the very first as an
imperative by means of the “value consciousness” and the “value
thinking”. Since survival is based on experience, at childhood such
experience is being got with phenomenal quickness. In reminiscences of
the childhood not information side of them becomes important then, but
an “idea” of practical activities and, especially, an essential
that become a pattern. The importance of children’s patterns
and any precedents in general is explained from this point of view.
the age of 3-4 years all system of mentality organization of a child is
being transformed. The two
levels of hierarchy appear in it. The system of adaptive
experience, which was generated earlier, turns into the category of
“methodology” of emotional perception and reaction and becomes
as though a level of “software” of mentality.
to new researches in the field of physiology , we can say, that the
discourse concerns that part of human emotional sphere
with work of the certain brain structure – corpus
amygdaloideum, - with the help of which
a current behavior of a person is coordinated with his previous
experiences. Probably, it is a function of corpus
amygdaloideum to reorganize experience
and access to it in accordance
the hierarchy. Since
that the access to the methodological part of experience is closed for
consciousness. I believe, it explains the well known fact that the early
period of life is forgotten after 3-4 years. And in this way a wide
layer of unconsciousness is formed. The system of conscious
activity and the logic analysis operate then current
experience of life already as the information about
facts which is being collected in memory and is accessible to
only the curtailed short patterns-impulses, instead of the full
information about the early experience, are forthcoming from unconscious
into consciousness specifying ways of reaction by analogy. Events of
early childhood become almost imperceptible for consciousness. They
penetrate consciousness with speed of an impulse however a person at
this very short instant has time to understand, how it is
necessary to perceive, feel and operate in a given situation.
Practically during this small moment of comprehension he has received an
intuitional pattern from memory which unequivocally sets a way to
qualify the situation, to refer it to the certain type. Not realizing
this, an adult person goes through sensations and emotions of
his early childhood. (Whether they conflict with the logic analysis?
– Sometimes. It’s another question, what prevails over, we shall
leave it. Problems just arise when it is “a drawn game” and a choice
is not made).
set of “software” of person’s mind is very individual, as everyone
is born with his own amount of health, everyone has his parents and
relatives, everyone is exposed to this or that character of upbringing
and education, and everyone experiences the especial events at early
period. All this leaves a unique print on a way of understanding and
attitude to oneself, people and to surrounding reality.
this sense, interpretation of complexes and memoirs from the side
of an analyst, even armed with a certain plausible general theory, that
is characteristic of the psychoanalysis, looks unconvincing enough. Our
memoirs, complexes, experiences mean only that they mean personally
for us, and not for anybody else.
the other hand, people though individualities, are not so different from
each other that it would be absolutely impossible to compare. Inherent
common requirements and innate primary ways of reacting and adaptation
are identical with everybody’s and it is not necessary even to
interpret them somehow. And they form a basis of mentality.
Cultural features are superimposed then on this basis. Besides,
character of children’s life up 2-3 years differs not much at people
of any culture though traditions of the attitude to children and ways of
their nursing and upbringing can be in some features unlike at different
peoples. That’s why to “interpret” and to understand psychological
phenomena it is necessary to search for the common inside cultural
communities, instead of between them. In this respect I can recommend an
interesting book of Erik H. Erikson
“Childhood and Society”, where detailed descriptions of upbringing
traditions of different peoples are given with the types of characters
which they result in .
general it is possible to draw a conclusion: a person carries his unique
senses and notions about modes of life and they only partly can repeat
the forms even distributed in his culture. And from this conclusion, and
also from depth of penetration in unconscious the method “the director
- script writer” accepts absence of interpretation from the side of
an analyst as a principle. (Especially that treatment is
conducted in images, even without words.)
no coincidence to make a comparison of the technique “the director -
script writer” with the psychoanalysis
to search for similarities and differences. Their main common feature is
that the work is carried out with a material of unconsciousness.
Differences, besides unacceptability of interpretation, are some others.
is necessary to work by the given technique, just as by NLP
Gestalt-therapy, with that symptom which is available at present in a
psychological status of the client or with that which has not yet lost
its urgency and can be easily reproduced out of memory. But behind a
symptom, a feeling, a reaction, a sensation which are current “here
always a layer of early memory that has caused the reaction. The
technique “the director - script writer” can change the character of
the given conditionality by imagined change of the events that happened
long ago. Therefore the given technique is also psycho-analytical. But
it differs from the classical psychoanalysis, which works (in the
associated status of consciousness of a client) with a layer of
recollections within the limits of conscious access that means with
“information” of a human life. The method “the director - script
writer” transforms the patterns of the deeper layer of memory closed
from direct access of consciousness, the layer of memory - methodology
(“software” of mentality), generated at early period of childhood.
The method “the director - script writer” is, in essence, the
a side of reminiscences.
to “catch” with purposeful attention what is slipping
consciousness in a curtailed and abstract appearance as a pulse, an
algorithm, and to realize it, becomes then a certain emotion, a certain
sensation. If to transfer this on an abstract “hero”, it can
“acquire” again a developed picture of events, circumstances, other
characters and can be turned to a “script” not forbidden to
altering and rewriting,
it to advantage to oneself, already from positions of the skilled adult
new experience of a person seems as if borrowed from aside though he
is its author. It’s
on according to the
principle of emotional empathy
since childhood to everybody.
And it is very effective, it is possible to say, that a new pattern
completely replaces the old one.
The former pattern is reorganized
into a new one,
and also “transplanted” to new “roots” of the events
is necessary to work with such a thing
the sphere of consciousness, because “methodology” has already lost
- for consciousness, but not in general, - its factual coherency,
connectedness. On the basis of early experiences a set of patterns of
behavior and reactions was generated which mentality operates with as
But once you transform such a tool, an effect of real coherence
of the unconscious
system makes itself felt.
logic, associative and symmetrical senses of connections of separate
patterns among themselves. And
then another pattern and associations of memory connected to it lay on a
with the given technique it is not
necessary to aspire to clearness of recollections and performances in
the imagined “cinema”. Vagueness of early children’s reminiscences
is not a minus, but, more likely, a plus. So abstractness not at verbal,
but at the image level, and transposition on a series of similar
subjects and images is achieved. An abstract image of “something”
with a small number of identification attributes therefore can suit for
in the process of treating also real substantial fragments of
reminiscences often emerge behind the scrappy attributes – symbols of
patterns. And at long work (1-2 years) it is possible to restore very
much of coherent true memory of very early childhood and understand, how
the character of a person was formed.
is actually possible to change a
destiny, having broken
painful dependence on distressing experience of early childhood which
usually leaves an indelible imprint on a person, his relations to people,
to a life and to the whole world. It is not surprising, as in fact
“methodology” (“philosophy”) of life is being transformed.
sense processing in images is being carried out separately of
each objectionable pattern. The processing must be conscious and have
positive trend for a client. And the person must observe a
continuous picture of transformations of behavior model and
accompanying emotions in his imagination. Only then the work with the
given problem can be considered finished.
patient (“the director - script writer”) is not bound by
absolutely any frameworks of reality in characteristics of
“rewriting” of a pattern. The variants most fantastic or
condemned by conscious morals are allowable. An explanation to it is
again in the dissociated
character of processing. There
is no terrible irreversibility here that
exists in a real life. The pattern itself as a new way of
possible behavior and, that is even more important, a new way of feeling
is significant here. The imagination is simply obliged to examine any
variants and opportunities, even absurd, for the most complete knowledge
of the world. The sense is in change of emotional frameworks of
sensation of the probable in a person’s inner world. As well
physiological sensations, more precisely, - even expectations
of the sensations corresponding to a situation will be transformed.
of emotional restrictions originally in imagination then breaks ground
for rational planning. Only after that an abstract pattern will be, - if
it will seem suitable to consciousness of an adult person! –
transferred from a “cinema” into real methodology of a life. In what
conditions it has been created - has no value. It’s no difference,
whether there were true memoirs behind the “film” or it was a
“cartoon film”, a fairy tale or a fantasy; there was it in the past,
the present or the future, - because it is relative and
“another’s” experience though also useful.
it is, certainly, not such “another’s” because the patient himself
creates it and, more often, from his real memory or its fragments,
supplementing them with desirable events.
and surroundings of the imagined “film” can correspond to real life
events and be recognized or can be an abstraction, carry out a function
of conditional sceneries. Just the same conditional and not detailed all
the heroes of the script can be, including the main character. It’s
only important here that a client would have
understanding of the action and experiences. “Interpretation” of a
psycho-analyst is not required and is left out of account.
the way, a character which a patient chooses more often is
he again, instead of
somebody else, only at the other age which he does not identify
himself with any more. Actually, for the person it’s already other
person with whom he has some common experiences. If the client chooses
really someone another as a
representative of him, it may be “an intrusion”
behind, taken root in the nucleus of his soul. It is useful to ask for
“dividing in two” such a character and then you can see, what will
turn out further and what kind of the relations will be between two new
“a picture” is not clear or “a film” is stopped on any statuses
which the patient interprets as “final”, which the action cannot
develop further, the method of dividing - literally the analysis
- decomposition on components of the character can be useful
people come to such synthetic, “integral” statuses in stressful
inconsistent intentions - desires and interdictions or obstacles (“gas”
and “brake”), and this all becomes then patterns of their
perceptions and emotional reactions. It’s being fixed together in
consciousness under action of stress as “reality”, immutability,
inevitability of “reality”, and is remembered as a “lesson”.
of psychological correctional work by the technique “the director -
script writer” is shorter, than in the psychoanalysis. It reaches
true patterns more slowly, while here it is required to work only with
them “expanding” instant impulses of sensations and emotions into
images. Therefore the method is effective, and achieves high reliability
of preservation of the useful result. “Complexes” do not come back
after their processing. However, it is necessary to say, that
unconscious of a person is unfathomable as “a bottomless cask”.
Always it will be something to work with. When the method is mastered,
it can become a habitual means of “personal mental hygiene”. The
help of an expert practically will not be required.
of a separate session can vary from several minutes up to two and even
three hours, depending on a general status of a client, his ability to
concentrate and success of imagination work. In some cases it happens
difficult to keep a sensation in the field of attention, to decipher and
realize its sense and reproduce it in a script. The principle of work is
- to reach even a small victory. This is a criterion to end a separate
session. Certainly, it is possible to have time to work with several
problems during one session if they are easy for correction.
down and switching attention of a client over to his current affairs
serve as a criterion of successful processing of a psychological
problem. Just both – calming down and switching over to, are - but not
emotional rise or a joyful status. Emotional excitation and gladness
display a subconscious rating of the result as a miracle, an exception,
a temporary or casual success, say, something doubtful. Such a rating
demands, on the contrary, further processing.
up, we can say, that all experience of a person is significant in
respect that it represents methodological base for the future life. Even
a separate experience is meaningful, when it removes uncertainty of life
conditions in the world of probability. The urgency of psychological
approaches which allow patterns correction follows from here as logic
necessity. The given technique “the director - script writer”, as it
seems, responds to this vital requirement.
с нем. – М.: Эйдос,
1996. – 253 с., схемы.
Joseph; Seymour, John Introducing
Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Psychological
skills for understanding and influencing people. – 1990.
– М.: Наука, 2001. – 95 с.
/ Анализ и
– Одесса: «Хаджибей»,
1995. – 352 с.
с англ. – К.:
– 384 с. – (Серия
Пер. с англ. - К.:
– 368 с. – (Серия
Беларусь, 1991. – 606 с.
/ Сост., науч.
вступ. ст. М.Г. Ярошевский.
1990. – 448 с.
Childhood and Society. Second edition revised and enlarged. – W.W.
Norton & Company, New York – London, 1963.
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